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Journal Journal of Agroecology
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Journal Journal of Agroecology

                  Journal of Agroecology Open access                                

  • Publisher: Iranian Scientific Society of Agroecology

  • Managing Editor: Houman Liaghati, phD

  • Editor-in-Chief: Eskandar Zand, phD

  • Assistant Editor: Reza Deihimfard, phD

  • Executive Expert: Mohadeseh Sadeghi
  • ISSN: 2251-6824

  • Tel: (+98) 21-22431971 Ext: 106-205

  • Address: Environmental Sciences Research
    Institute (ESRI), Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

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اطلاعیه مهم
بدین وسیله به استحضار کلیه پژوهشگران محترم می رساند از مقالات ارسالی به دوفصلنامه کشاورزی بوم شناختی مبلغ 500000 ریال (50 هزار تومان) بابت ثبت اولیه مقاله و طرح آن در جلسه هیات تحریریه و در صورت در اسکوپ بودن و پذیرفته شدن مقاله به منظور چاپ مبلغ 1500000 ریال (یکصد و پنجاه هزارتومان) دیگر برای تامین بخشی از هزینه های چاپ از نویسنده مسئول دریافت خواهد شد . نویسندگان محترم می بایست مبالغ فوق را به حساب جاری شماره 0342063365 بانک تجارت شعبه دانشگاه شهید بهشتی به نام انجمن علمی کشاورزی بوم شناختی ایران واریز نمایند . بدیهی است وجوه واریزی به هیچ عنوان قابل استرداد نخواهد بود.

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The latest Published Issue
 Volume9،Number1
 
1
Weed management of peppermint (Mentha piperita) using narrow leaf cover crops and their effect on yield
( 88 Visit ) ( 97 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 9 - Number 1
Auhtors :
Abstract : Introduction: Today, cover crops are an effective tool in non-chemical weed management in sustainable agriculture (Ateh and Doll, 1996). This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of cover crops on weed management and the yield of peppermint (Mentha piperita). Materials and methods: In order to evaluate the effect of cover crops on weed management and yield of peppermint (Mentha piperita), a factorial experiment was conducted with a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agricultural Research Field of the University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Iran, in 2012. The first factor included: spring wheat, spring barley, winter rye, winter wheat, winter barley, mixed winter rye + winter barley. Cover crop management methods included: undercutting mulch, heading living mulch, and cover crops killed with herbicide as a second factor. Two controls were also included in the experiments: no cover crop with weeding and no cover crop without weeding. To investigate the effect of cover crops on density and weed biomass, three stages of weed sampling were performed, 30, 60, and 90 days after the peppermint (Mentha piperita) planting (except for weed control plots and no weeding) in a plot of 0.5 × 0.5 square meters. Also recorded were number of branches, stem length, leaf fresh weight, leaf dry weight, and fresh yield. Results and discussion: The results showed that the main effect of the cover crop was significant on the number of branches and the main effect of cover crop management had a significant effect on peppermint properties and the dry weight and density of weeds. Most of the trait impact was positive in all the methods of cover crop management of weed control. The results showed that peppermint traits were most affected with undercutting management and heading living mulch. The second most effective was cover crops killed with herbicide. Comparison of interaction effects showed that by using heading living mulch winter wheat, undercut spring barley and winter rye had the highest fresh yield. The main effect of cover crop type on the first sampling on dry weight of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) was significant for weed density of bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.) in the third sampling and the cover crop management for all weeds in all three samplings. On average in the three stages of sampling, the dry weight and density of the control weed of redroot pigweed, common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album) and bindweed in undercutting mulch, heading living mulch, killed cover crops with herbicide were 66%, 73%, 38% and 59%, 70% and 44%, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that cover crops are effective strategies for weed control. In this experiment, cereal crop plants with rapid growth and high biomass, reduced the density and dry weight of annual and perennial weeds (Blanco-Canqui et al., 2013 ؛ Jahanzad et al., 2013؛ Jahanzad et al., 2014) and had a good effect on the fresh leaf yield of peppermint. In general, to achieve more effective control of weeds and healthy production, the treatment of heading living mulch winter wheat was appropriate.
Area of Expertise : Bindweed, Density, Red root pigweed, Rye.

2
Study of energy indicators and greenhouse gas emissions in wheat production in Golestan province
( 101 Visit ) ( 65 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 9 - Number 1
Auhtors :
Abstract : Introduction: The significant increases in energy consumption make the continued and accelerated optimization measures on energy supply and demand more critical than ever before (Iranian Ministry of Energy, 2010). Different quantities of energy are consumed per hectare of wheat production by using different inputs such as fertilizers, fossil fuels, electricity, seeds, pesticides and machinery. This leads to greenhouse gas emissions including CO2, N2O and CH4. Increasing the concentration of such gases in the atmosphere can cause global warming. Serious attention to reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions is therefore necessary. To this end, fuel and energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions were investigated in all the wheat fields in Golestan Province. Finally, some strategies to reduce consumption and emissions were presented. Material and methods: In order to determine the fuel and energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions and how to reduce it, 140 wheat fields in Golestan province were investigated through systematic random sampling. The amount of inputs, including fossil fuels was recorded and energy analysis was done based on the consumed inputs amount per unit. Also, the greenhouse gases emission of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane derived from energy consumption for agricultural inputs and agronomic operations was calculated (IPCC, 1996; Soltani et al., 2013). Finally, energy efficiency, energy productivity, specific energy, net energy and total GWP, GWP in area unit, product weights, input energy and output energy were also calculated. Result and discussion: Fuel required to produce wheat was estimated at 123±0.23 L.ha-1 and energy required was 16231.04± 0.34 MJ.ha-1, based on results. Greenhouse gas emissions were calculated at 1414.01±3.17 kg eq-CO2.ha-1. Land preparation and harvesting required higher fuel and energy consumption and produced more emissions than other agricultural operations. Nitrogen fertilizers and fossil fuels were the worst offenders accounting for 70% of total energy consumption and 78% of emissions. Based on the results, using tractors with higher horsepower and equipment with a high working width and penetration depth in soil is preferable because they required fewer operations and less time for land preparation. Using turbo linear sprayers instead of lance sprayers with a tractor, as well as using new engines for irrigation can play an important role in reducing fuel consumption and, consequently, reduce energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases in overall agricultural operations. Conclusion: Optimizing the use of nitrogen fertilizers and reducing fossil fuel consumption is critical to reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. If wheat production in Golestan is carried out in such a way that the efficiency of using different types of fertilizers, especially urea fertilizer, is increased or by using organic fertilizers that lead to mineral enrichment in soil over a long period of time, the application of a higher efficiency machine which reduces its own use and fuel consumption, it is possible to increase the energy efficiency and the ratio of the output energy to the input per hectare and reduce energy consumption per kg of grain and straw. By applying such management practices, greenhouse gas emissions will also be reduced in land and crop weight unit.
Area of Expertise : Cultural operations, Electricity, Energy efficiency, Fossil fuel.

3
Effect of vermicompost extract (Compost tea) on growth and yield of strawberry
( 91 Visit ) ( 44 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 9 - Number 1
Auhtors :
Abstract : Introduction: Unbalanced application of chemical inputs leads to environmental damage, which reduces the quality and health of the soil (Samavat, 2011).  Vermicompost is one of the bio-fertilizers that results from a semi-aerobic process by a specific species of earthworm called Fetida Eisenia and excretion of these substances from the body of the worm (Sekar and Karmegam, 2010).  Compost tea, a vermicompost extract, has the beneficial properties of the vermicompost from which it is prepared.  During extraction, dissolved inorganic nutrients, humic acid, fulvic acid, hormones and growth regulators are fed into the extract from Vermicompost (Afshar Manesh et al., 2016). This research was conducted with the aim of producing an organic crop and reducing the use of chemical fertilizers, as well as determining the best concentration of compost tea on the growth and yield of three cultivars of strawberry.Material and methods: This experiment was carried out in a factorial based on a completely randomized block design with three replications and two factors: A - concentration of compost tea at four levels (0, 1500, 3000 and 4500 ppm); B - three short-term cultivars of strawberry (Parous, Queen Eliza and Diamante) in the research sites of the University of Mohaghegh Ardabili in 2015-17.  The compost tea solution was prepared in a ration 1:5. The extract was diluted with water to prepare each level of solution.  The spraying of compost tea from the third stage of the strawberry bush (mid-April to late May) was carried out in five periods of 10 days apart from each other in each year. Two weeks after the last application of treatments (June of the second year), growth variables of the plant were measured, such as fresh and dry weight of leaves, leaf area, number of runners, fresh and dry weight of root, root length, chlorophyll a, b, and total chlorophyll, rate of flowers converting into fruits and fruit yield.Results and discussion: Analysis of variance indicated that the effective compost tea has had a significant effect at 1% probability level on all traits.  Comparison of meanings showed that the highest fresh weight (26.84 gr), dry weight of leaves (7.38 gr) and fresh weight of root (23.10 gr) were related to 4,500 ppm treatments. In all three indicators, the Parous (27.86 gr, 8.71 gr and 22.89 gr) responded better than the Diamante and Queen Eliza cultivars.  The highest rate of flowers converted into fruit (93.55%), fruit yield in bush (181.73 gr), dry weight of root (8.79 gr) and root length (18.48 cm) resulted from the 3000 ppm application.  The Parous also had the highest rate of flowers converted into fruit (93.60%), fruit yield in bush (162.02 gr), dry weight of root (8.74 gr) and root length (18.12 cm).  Due to the interaction of treatments, the Parous with the 3000 ppm concentration of compost tea had the highest amount of leaf area (7533.75 cm2), chlorophyll a (1.65 mg.g-1FW), chlorophyll b (0.79 mg.g-1FW) and total chlorophyll (2.44 mg.g-1FW).  The highest number of runners (8.89) was observed in the treatment of Parous cultivar with 4500 ppm level of compost tea.Conclusion: It can generally be concluded that the application of compost tea as a foliar application on various cultivars of strawberry can improve plant growth and yield.  According to the results of this experiment, the level of 3000 ppm of compost tea and Parous cultivar had the highest growth indices and yield of strawberry.
Area of Expertise : Ardabil, Bio-fertilizer, Spraying, Strawberry cultivars.

4
Evaluation of irrigation intervals of growth stages on the morpho-physiological properties of rice genotypes in the climate of Khuzestan, Iran
( 80 Visit ) ( 26 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 9 - Number 1
Auhtors :
Abstract : Introduction: Rice can be irrigated like wheat and corn as an aerobic plant (Limouchi et al., 2015; Wu et al., 2011).  A severe decrease in available water for multi-day irrigation intervals lead to negative effects on the plant and will reduce vegetative growth, particularly in the seedling stage (Salehifar et al., 2014).  Supplemental irrigation can present a manageable alternative to reduce the negative aspects of the terminal drought (end of season) at the reproductive stage (Nehbandani et al., 2016).  This research aims to study the effects of irrigation intervals on the growth steps of indices of stem dry weight, leaf dry weight and final grain yield of aerobic rice genotypes. One goal is to identify a physiological response of resistance mechanism or sensitivity to low water and waterlogging by studying changes in the mentioned traits.  The other goal is to identify the positive role during vegetative growth that is played to increase grain yield as well as to provide functional traits to breed rice genotypes.Material and methods: This study aims to examine the effects of different irrigation intervals on the physiological characteristics in the examined rice genotypes with a split-plot arrangement using a randomized complete block design with three replications in 2014 and 2015 in the Agricultural Research and Education Center of Shavar related to agricultural research and the Office of Natural Resources of Khuzestan. Experimental research includes four different irrigation intervals (1, 3, 5 and 7 days), and 12 genotypes of rice that were located in the main plots and sub-plots.Results and disscussion: The combined analysis results illustrate that between genotype, irrigation protocol and the interaction of two factors there was a significant difference at the level of one percent at all stages of growth properties.  The second irrigation protocol also accounted for the highest performance. IR 81025-B-327-3 genotype having the average of 6555.10 kg per hectare had the highest average grain yield.  The highest amount of stem weight was obtained in two irrigation treatments with a frequency of once a day and once every three days.  Its decrease could be due to its role in retransmission thereby leading to an increase in grain yield, as it has the biggest positive and significant correlation (0.382**) with the leaf weight yield versus stem weight.  The highest amount in all growth stages were the irrigation intervals of five and seven days, which according to the positive and significant correlation between the two aforementioned attributes is reasonable.Conclusion: The traits were all at their highest levels at the ending and critical stages of growth in irrigation intervals of 3 days. Due to the fact that the most highly positive and significant correlation was obtained at the ending stage of growth, we can explain the increase in performance particularly in this irrigation protocol.  This consistency was also obtained with the genotype in a way that due to higher consistency at the final growth stage, genotypes with a higher resistance could perform better, even though at the early stages of growth due to rising costs of resistance, these traits were of less value.  In general, the genotypes with the highest and lowest values of the studied traits at the late stages of development produced the highest and the lowest yield respectively. Judging by these results, it seems that by concentrating modifying purposes on increasing these traits we can hope grain yield increases.
Area of Expertise : Tolerance, Irrigation intervals, leaf weight, Stem weight.

5
Comparative analysis of intensive, conventional and organic farming systems to ecosystem services using the analytic network process
( 92 Visit ) ( 65 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 9 - Number 1
Auhtors :
Abstract : Introduction: The sustainability of agro-ecosystems depends on their ability to deliver an entire package of multiple ecosystem services (ES), rather than provisioning services alone. They must also provide a web of supporting and regulating services, such as soil fertility, pest control and pollination.  In this sense, various farming systems have been developed to achieve a balance between the provisions of multiple ES.  The present study aims to assess the alternative agro-ecosystems (e.g. industrial, organic and conventional) in terms of the provisions of ecosystem services in agriculture using the analytical network process (ANP).  This study applies a social–ecological framework developed by Lescourret et al. (2015) for the service-based management of agro-ecosystems, specified through an explicit and symmetric representation of the ecosystem and the social system, and the dynamic links between them.  It also displays how management practices, with their multiple effects, could drive the provision of multiple services.  Based on this framework, ecosystem service relationships are classified based on the two types of mechanisms causing them: (1) effects of drivers (i.e. organic, industrial and conventional farming systems) on multiple ecosystem services and (2) interactions among ecosystem services. Alternative agro-ecosystems can drive change in one or more ecosystem services. Material and methods: In this study, an analytical network process (ANP) was used to compare different farming systems in terms of ecosystem services. The process consists of four steps:(1) network design, including the identification of the observed system’s main elements and relationships; (2) comparative assessment of the relative importance of the elements by means of expert and farmer judgments; (3) calculation of ‘priority vectors,’ summarizing the overall importance of the elements in the agriculture system; and (4) validation of the results through an expert-panel evaluation.Results and dissuasion:  Results regarding ecosystem services revealed that indicators of water and soil conservation, alongside food production are the millstone in a sustainable and balanced agroecosystem.  In this sense, the results showed the priority of industry farming systems and in comparison with other systems in agreement with Andersen et al. (2013) and Letourneau and Bothwell (2008). Results reveal that among the four categories of ecosystem services, the production services group had the highest rate, and then, supportive, regulatory and cultural services. Water and production indictors also rated the highest regarding ecosystem service as well as organic and industry farming systems. This implies the importance of the integration of farming systems. Conclusion: Based on the results and consistent with Pretty et al. (2011), sustainable intensification is recommended to balance providing an entire package of multiple ecosystem services. Kiani et al. (2015) have analyzed the conditions of Iranian provinces in terms of production sustainability, and have concluded that in spite of the growing intensity in Iranian agricultural systems over the past five decades, the index related to the stability and sustainability of production has decreased. This is why, enhancing the input efficiency and extension sustainable intensification will be the only solution to feeding the growing population of Iran in the future, while still addressing environmental issues such as water conservation.
Area of Expertise : Agroecosystem, multiple-criteria decision analysis, ecosystem services, Analysis network process.

6
Climate change and the risk of agricultural productions: A case study of wheat, barley and potatoes
( 90 Visit ) ( 65 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 9 - Number 1
Auhtors :
Abstract : Introduction: Climate change is not only an important determinant of crop average yield and agricultural production potential in a region, but also is an important source of agricultural production risk, which leads to unexpected changes in yield and production levels. This, in turn, it is affects key parameters of the market, supply and demand, and, consequently products prices. Although, the analysis of climate change effects is an important issue in relation to agricultural production from policy making points of view and adaptation strategies (Kundouri et al, 2005), but, little quantitative studies have been conducted in this regard so far. On the other hand, in most researches, the impacts of climate changes on average crops yield is estimated, and less attention has been paid to the effects of this phenomenon on the production risk.Material and methods: In this study, using the random production function introduced by Just and Pop (1979, 1976), the effect of changes in climatic parameters on the average crops yield and yield variance was estimated for three crops including wheat, barley and potatoes in the northwestern ecological zone of Iran for the period of 1999 to 2015 years. The basis of this approach is on the fact that the production function can be separated into two basic components. The first component is related to the average yield of the product, while the second component is related to variance and production-level fluctuations (Sarker et al, 2012). Climatic parameters simulations and hence the change in the average and the variance of crops yield carried out by using the results of two general circulation models of ECHAM3 and EGCM3T63 and two climatic scenarios, GA and B1.Results and discussion: The results of climate change simulation of two scenarios B1 and showed that, up to two future decades (2040), the annual rainfall in the northwestern ecological zone was increased and until the year 2070 will decrease compared to the base historical period. Under the scenario B1 in the model , the amount of annual precipitation is predicted incremental over both time intervals. The results of predictions for the temperature parameter also indicate that it tends to increase under both general circulation models and scenarios. The intensity of warming in the  model is more predicted than the other model. The results of the crops yield simulation to the predicted climatic variations under different scenarios indicate a significant reduction in the yield of these products.The yield reduction for wheat is estimated to be higher than barley and potato. Comparison of cultivars in the percentage of yield reduction in the scenarios also shows that in the range of predicted changes for climate parameters, increasing temperature is a more effective factor in explaining the reduction of yield performance relative to precipitation. The variance response of crops in relation to climate change for potato production under different scenarios and for wheat under scenario 2040-GA has been estimated incremental.Conclusion: Regarding the reduction of yield of products under different scenarios of climate change, it is recommended to develop agronomic plans in order to shift the crop pattern towards varieties or products that have the least yield loss due to climate change. Further development and research in this field and the introduction of drought and heat resistant varieties can be one of the most effective ways in this regard.
Area of Expertise : Climate change, Risk of yield, Agriculture, Northwest ecology zone.

7
Zoning rice fields of Guilan province prone to frost damage under different rice growth stages using remote sensing
( 90 Visit ) ( 21 Download )  Abstract And Keywords
Publication Information : Volume 9 - Number 1
Auhtors :
Abstract : Introduction: Loss of yield as a result of natural damages and its adverse effect on crop production is one of the important issues in agriculture (Barlow et al., 2015). Environmental stresses, particularly cold and frost stresses, affect the morphological and physiological characteristics of plants (Akhil et al., 2008). Identifying and determining spatial distributing of rice fields under frost damage is important for evaluating the food security and improving crop production management (Simaie et al., 2013). The objective of this study was to come up with zoning the frost damage using satellite imagery and cold degree days (CDD) index to evaluate the severity of frost damage in different growth stages of rice plant.Material and methods In this research, climatic parameters including maximum, minimum and mean of temperature were obtained from Kiyashahr synoptic station. A number of 180 images with the MOD11A1 code related to the crop season, which covering the Guilan area, were taken from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) site. In order to create surface temperature maps in Rasht, land surface temperature product of MODIS sensor was pre-processed. By using the satellite images and Cold Degree Days indices in three growth stages of rice (seedling, panicle initiating to the end of booting, cluster to flowering), the influence of frost damage on different growth stages of rice in part of rice fields in Guilan province was evaluated.Results and discussion: The severity of frost damage in rice fields was estimated at times when the plant was growing below the critical temperature. The obtained results indicated that the index of cold degree days (CDD) was 8.7 at seedling stage, 3.1 at panicle initiating to the end of booting stage and 11 in flowering stage. Also, investigating the trend of frost zones indicated that Kuchesfahan, Lashtnesha and Khoshbijar areas due to severe frost damage during rice plant growth period imposed to the most damage to plant growth and yield. The zones with the dark pixels (lower than the temperature threshold for growth) in the panicle initiating to the end of booting growth stage were more exposed to frost damage than other growth stages. The obtained results further indicated that integration of remote sensing data with ground information can be used under an improved pattern for interpreting satellite data for areas where low ground data is accessible. This method has a reasonable capability to determine the risk of rice cultivation at rice fields and at different times of year, and consequently can be used to determine the potential of rice fields for second cultivation.Conclusion: Knowledge of spatial and temporal distribution of rice farms temperature is essential for determining energy balance, meteorological studies and identification of rice fields under temperature stresses. Based on the obtained results, satellite images perform well in evaluating temperature stresses. Using satellite imagery, the temperature stresses (frost and heat damage) in different rice growth stages as well as for crop yield reduction can be investigated. The results of the prediction of the average air temperature and the zoning of frost damage can be used in environmental planning such as disease and pest control, optimal water resources management, estimation of damage to fields and environmental studies.
Area of Expertise : Cold Degree Days, Remote sensing, Rice, Temperature stresses.

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